The Italian Tsunami Effects Database (ITED), the first database dealing with the tsunami effects observed along the Italian coasts from historical times. ITED was compiled starting from the Euro Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue (EMTC, Maramai et al., 2014), containing information on 290 tsunamis occurred in the Euro Mediterranean area. ITED focuses on the propagation effects observed along the Italian coasts providing information on how each locality was interested by tsunamis effects over time.
The Italian tsunamis contained in the EMTC were excerpt, analyzed and updated according to recent studies published in literature.
In order to improve the quality of ITED data all the Italian tsunamis of seismic origin have been linked to the Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes (CPTI15; Rovida et al. 2016), adopted as the reference earthquake catalogue. This choice lead us to reappraise some events that in the EMTC had a not reliable seismic cause and new data were added following a cross-checking with CFTI5Med (Guidoboni et al. 2018).Consequently, for each tsunami the information has been updated and at the end of the revision procedure the Italian tsunamis of seismic origin undergone to several changes: two new tsunami events were added, more information enriched the knowledge on the tsunamis present in the catalogue and, accordingly to the new achieved info, some tsunami parameters, such as the reliability, intensity, generating cause, etc. have changed. Due to these relevant amendments, 63 out of 70 EMTC events were updated and a new version of Euro Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue, the EMTC v2, has also been compiled.
ITED was realized starting from the description of Italian tsunamis, isolating each single observation of tsunami effects and associated them to a locality and municipality present in the INGV Gazetteer. In many cases the precise geographical coordinates of the observation point are provided. Otherwise, when the tsunami description was too vague to identify the exact place, the coordinates of the closest locality are displayed.
For each observation point, the description of the tsunami effects found in literature is given, accompanied by the corresponding bibliographic references. According to the description, for each observation the estimate of the intensity of the phenomenon at the locality is also provided according to both the Sieberg-Ambraseys (Ambraseys 1962) and the Papadopoulos-Imamura (Papadopoulos and Imamura 2001) scales. All quantitative data contained in the description of the effects such as runup, inundation, withdrawal, number of waves observed, first sea movement, populated an attribute table that can be retrieved by accessing online the database.
Currently ITED contains about 300 observations of tsunami effects referred to 184 localities of the Italian coasts and related to the 70 Italian tsunami events present in EMTC v2. Whenever a place experienced a tsunami effects more than once, details of each observation is supplied to allow the user to build the tsunami-history of the locality.
Whenever possible, events and effects reported in ITED are linked to seismological databases , allowing the user to retrieve additional information about the earthquake associated to the tsunamis of seismic origin. Along the lines of the EMTC, ITED is interoperable with the Italian Archive of Historical Earthquake Data (ASMI) database, with CPTI15 and with the last version of the Italian Macroseismic Database (DBMI15). The interoperability is made possible by referencing the earthquake identifier as it is assigned by CPTI15. In addition, ITED adopts the same Gazetteer used by ASMI and DBMI so that each observation point reported in ITED uses the same codes to identify localities mentioned in ASMI or DBMI.
The user can retrieve ITED data through the ITED web application that was expressly designed and built for this purpose. The web application has been developed using the Esri ArcGIS online environment and can be freely accessed without the need of an Esri user account. The web application allow the user to browse ITED and at the same time to switch to EMTC v2. The ITED web application makes able the user to customize the displayed information, allowing to query each of the available layers, filtering information from a group of layers, downloading tabular information and printing custom maps. By using the “Select Layers” widget, the user can decide which data display from the available layers (EMTC, ITED observation points, Observed Runup, Observed Inundation). The “Attribute table” widget allows the user to see and export the tabular information contained in the database choosing from several filtering expressions (i.e., selecting data from the extent viewed, or by date, reliability, cause, locality etc.; or by a combination of several of these parameters). The ITED web application has also a “Print” widget that allows the user to export and print maps with the results of their specific queries or a general view of the database.
ITED was specifically built to meet the needs of the tsunami hazard community, thus providing useful information that can improve the knowledge of the tsunami exposition of the national territory. The database contains a great number of reliable data that can contribute to validate hazard assessment along the Italian coasts.
Screenshot of the graphical user interface of the web application.
You may access ITED via its map-based application at the following address
Maramai, A., Graziani, L., & Brizuela Reyes, B. (2019). Italian Tsunami Effects Database (ITED). Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). https://doi.org/10.13127/tsunami/ited.1.0
ITED is open to later additions and improvements. For these reasons and due to its intrinsic nature, ITED cannot be guaranteed to be complete, accurate and updated in any part, and will be subjected to successive revisions. Although the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia makes every effort to supply the best available information, no warranty, expressed or implied, is provided as to the accuracy and reliability of all the data supplied in the ITED. Users are cautioned to consider carefully the nature of the data and information before using it for decisions that concern personal or public safety. Conclusions drawn from the ITED, or actions undertaken on the basis of its contents, are the sole responsibility of the user.
For any question or comments please contact the authors.
Ambraseys N. (1962). Data for the investigation of the seismic sea-waves in the Eastern Mediterranean. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 52, No. 4, pp. 895-913, October, 1962.
Guidoboni E., Ferrari G., Mariotti D., Comastri A. , Tarabusi G. , Sgattoni G. , Valensise G. (2018). CFTI5Med, Catalogo dei Forti Terremoti in Italia (461 a.C.-1997) e nell’area Mediterranea (760 a.C.-1500). Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). DOI: https://doi.org/10.6092/INGV.IT-CFTI5
Maramai A., Brizuela, Graziani L. (2014). The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue. Annals of Geophysics, 57, 4, S0435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6437
Papadopoulos G.A. and Imamura F. (2001). A Proposal for a new tsunami intensity scale. Proceedings of IUGG ITS 2001, Session 5, Number 5-1 pp. 569-577.
Rovida A., Locati M., Camassi R., Lolli B., Gasperini P. (eds) (2016). CPTI15, the 2015 version of the Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). DOI: https://doi.org/10.6092/INGV.IT-CPTI15